For More InformationÖ

For more information about specific sources used in this web site, subjects discussed in this site, or historic archaeology, farmstead architecture, and artifacts in general, please consult the following sources.  At the bottom of this page, there are also links to other Internet sites that may be of interest.


    James Deetz wrote two books that provide good introductions to archaeology and how archaeologists interpret what they find.  In Invitation to Archaeology (The Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, 1967), Deetz defines archaeology, and discusses (among other things) dating methods, analysis of form and function, context, structure, and behavior, integrating the concepts with numerous examples from both prehistoric and historic archaeology.  His volume In Small Things Forgotten (Anchor Books, Doubleday, New York, 1977), Deetz masterfully interweaves archaeology with the artifacts left by colonial Americans to present a compelling view of their lives.  Subjects discussed include grave markers, ceramics, houses, historic documents, furniture, etc.  Both of these readable books are still in publication.

    Ivor NoŽl Hume, in his book Historical Archaeology (Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 1968) presents a detailed guide to the techniques and methods of historic archaeology.  While portions are somewhat outdated because of technological advances, NoŽl Hume's book still remains a "must read" standard.


    Byron D. Halsted (editor) prepared the book Barns, Sheds & Outbuildings, which provides a considerable amount of information about a variety of outbuildings commonly found on 19th-century farmsteads.  Originally published in 1881, this modern reprint (Alan C. Hood & Company, Inc., Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 1994) presents numerous line drawings and plans of these outbuildings coupled with informative text.

    Donald A. Hutslar wrote both The Log Architecture of Ohio (Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1977) and the expanded volume Log Construction in the Ohio Country, 1750 Ė 1850 (Ohio University Press, Athens, Ohio, 1992).  Both of these volumes provide considerable information about the history of log construction and changes in construction techniques over time.  While focused on Ohio, these volumes are also applicable to much of the mid-Atlantic region, including West Virginia.

    George A. Martin published his book Fences, Gates, and Bridges in 1887; it was designed to be a practical volume for planning and constructing these items on farmsteads.  Illustrated with 300 detailed line drawings, this reprinted volume (Alan C. Hood & Company, Inc., Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, 1992) is a valuable tool for interpreting archaeological features on farmsteads.

    Virginia and Lee McAlester, in their book A Field Guide to American Houses (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1990), present one of the standard guides describing house architecture in the United States from the colonial period through the 1960s.  This profusely illustrated volume contains a detailed section discussing log architecture.


    Ivor NoŽl Hume, in his volume A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1970), presents a very readable overview of 18th and early 19th-century artifacts commonly found on North American sites of that period.  NoŽl Hume covers a variety of artifact types ranging from the ubiquitous ceramic and glass artifacts to scarcer artifact classes such as beads, combs, and wig curlers.  This volume remains in print.

    The Illustrated Catalogue of the American Hardware of the Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company, 1865 (reprinted by the Association for Preservation Technology, Pub Press Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, 1980) provides a detailed look at mid-19th-century hardware, ranging from numerous types of hardware (nails, hinges, knobs, hooks, etc.) to tools, farm equipment, cutlery, lamps, coffin hardware, etc.  This book is very useful for identifying many types of artifacts.

    Chappell, Marian E., 1969, Dorset Buttons.  Just Buttons.  January: 67-71.

    Hinks, Stephen, 1995, A Structural and Functional Analysis of Eighteenth Century Buttons.  Volumes in Historical Archaeology XXXII.  The South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, The University of South Carolina, Columbia.  Reprint of author's 1988 M. A. Thesis from the Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg.

    Tice, Warren K., 1997Uniform Buttons of the United States.  Thomas Publications, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

    Grimm, Jacob L., 1970, Archaeological Investigation of Fort Ligonier, 1960 Ė 1965.  Annals of Carnegie Museum, Volume 42.  Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Jones, Olive and Catherine Sullivan, 1985, The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the Description of Containers, Tableware, Flat Glass, and Closures.  Studies in Archaeology, Architecture, and History.  National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

    Robacker, Earl F., and Ada F. Robacker, 1978, Spatterware and Sponge: Hardy Perennials of Ceramics.  A. S. Barnes and Company, South Brunswick and New York.

    Stone, Lyle M., 1974 Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Ė 1781, An Archaeological Perspective on the Revolutionary War.  Publications of the Museum, Anthropoligical Series, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, in cooperation with Mackinac Island State Park Commission, Mackinac Island, Michigan.

    Sudbury, Byron, 1979, Historic Clay Tobacco Pipemakers in the United States of America.  Reprinted from The Archaeology of the Clay Tobacco Pipe:  Part II:  The Untied States of America, edited by Peter Davey.  BAR International Series 60, Oxford, England.

    Fike, Richard E.,1987The Bottle Book:  A Comprehensive Guide to Historic, Embossed Medicine Bottles.  Peregrine Smith Books, Salt Lake City.

    Leibowitz, Joan,1985Yellow Ware:  The Transitional Ceramic.  Schiffer Publishing Company, Atglen, Pennsylvania.

    Sussman, Lynne, 1997Mocha, Banded, Cat's Eye, and Other Factory-Made Slipware.  Studies in Northeast Historical Archaeology No. 1.

    Wells, Tom 1998Nail Chronology:  The Use of Technologically Derived Features.  Historical Archaeology 32(2): 78-99.

    Edwards, Jay D. and Tom Wells 1993Historic Louisiana Nails:  Aids to the Dating of Old Houses.  Geo-Science Publications, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.

    Oates, Dan (editor) 1994Hanging Rock Rebel:  Lt. John Blue's War in West Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley.  Originally printed as articles written by John Blue and published in The Hampshire Review, Romney, West Virginia, 1898 Ė 1901.  Burd Streed Press, Shippensburg, Pennsylvania.

    Greer, Georgeanna H. 1996American Stonewares, The Art & Craft of Utilitarian Potters.  Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., Atglen, Pennsylvania.

    Ketchum, William C., Jr. 1991American Stoneware.  Henry Holt and Company, Inc., New York.

    Munsey, Cecil 1970The Illustrated Guide to Collecting Bottles.  Hawthorn Books, Inc., New York.

    Polak, Michael 1994Bottles: Identification and Price Guide.  Avon Books, New York.

    Wilson, Rex L. 1981Bottles on the Western Frontier.  The University of Arizona Press, Tuscon.

    Barnard, Harry 1924Chats on Wedgwood Ware.  Frederick A. Stokes Company, Publishers, New York.

    Catts, Wade P., Jay Hodny, Mara Guttman, and Keith R. Doms 1994The Archaeology of Rural Artisans: Final Investigations at the Mermaid Blacksmith and Wheelwright Shop Sites, State Route 7-Limestone Road, New Castle County, Delaware.  Delaware Department of Transportation Archaeology Series No. 110.  A Report prepared by The University of Delaware, Department of Anthropology, Center for Archaeological Research for the Delaware Department of Transportation, Division of Planning, Location and Environmental Studies Office.

    Coysh, A. W., and R. K. Henrywood 1994The Dictionary of Blue and White Printed Pottery 1780-1880, Volume II.  Reprint of 1989 edition.  Antique Collectors' Club Ltd., Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.

    Hoseth, Angela, Wade P. Catts, and Rebecca Tinsman 1994Status, Landscape, and Tenancy at Mount Vernon Place:  Final Archaeological Investigations of the Jacob B. Cazier Tenancy Site #2, State Route 896, New Castle County, Delaware. Delaware Department of Transportation Archaeology Series No. 104.  A Report prepared by The University of Delaware, Department of Anthropology, Center for Archaeological Research for the Delaware Department of Transportation, Division of Planning, Location and Environmental Studies Office.

    Husfloen, Kyle 1992Collector's Guide to American Pressed Glass, 1825 - 1915.  Wallace-Homestead Book Company, Radnor, Pennsylvania.

    Lee, Ruth Webb 1946Early American Pressed Glass: A Classification of Patterns Collectible in Sets Together with Individual Pieces for Table Decorations.  The Ferris Printing Company, New York.

    McCain, Mollie Helen 1994The Collector's Encyclopedia of Pattern Glass.  Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky.

    McKearin, George S., and Helen McKearin 1941American Glass.  Crown Publishers, New York.

    Miller, George L. 1991A Revised Set of CC Index Values for Classification and Economic Scaling of English Ceramics from 1787 to 1880.  Historical Archaeology 25(1): 1-25.

    NoŽl Hume, Ivor 1972Creamware to Pearlware:  A Williamsburg Perspective.  In Ceramics in America, edited by Ian M. G. Quimby.  The University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

    Towner, Donald 1978Creamware.  Faber, London.

    Yeoman, R. S. 19961997 Handbook of United States Coins.  Golden Books Publishing Company, Inc., Racine, Wisconsin.

    Witthoft, John 1966A History of Gunflints.  Pennsylvania Archaeologist 36(1-2): 12-49.

    Hamilton, T.M. 1987 The Gunflint in North America.  In Colonial Frontier Guns, by T.M. Hamilton.  Reprint of 1980 edition.  Pioneer Press, Union City, Tennessee.

    Coates, Earl J. and Dean S. Thomas 1990  An Introduction to Civil War Small Arms.  Thomas Publications,    Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

    Crouch, Howard R. 1995  Civil War Artifacts:  A Guide for the Historian.  SCS Publications, Fairfax, Virginia.

    Lindsay, Irene and Ralph Lindsay 1998  ABC Plates & Mugs.  Collector Books, Schroeder Publishing Company,  Paducah, Kentucky.

    Miller, George L. and Robert R. Hunter 1990  English Shell Edged Earthenware:  Alias Leeds Ware, Alias Feather Edge.  Paper presented in the 35th Annual Wedgwood International Seminar, pp. 107-136.

    Blue, Lt. John 1994Hanging Rock Rebel:  Lt. John Blue's War in West Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley, edited by Dan Oates.  Originally published as articles in The Hampshire Review, 1898 - 1901.  Burd Street Press, Shippensburg, Pennsylvania.

    U. S. War Department 1880 - 1901War of the Rebellion:  A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.  128 volumes.  Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

    Coates, Earl J., and Dean S. Thomas 1990An Introduction to Civil War Small Arms.  Thomas Publications, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

    Crouch, Howard R. 1995Civil War Artifacts, A Guide for the Historian.  SCS Publications, Fairfax, Virginia.

    Sloane, Eric 1974A Museum of Early American Tools.  Second Printing.  Ballantine Books, New York.

    Smith, Elmer L. 1975  Early Tools and Equipment.  Applied Arts Publishers, Lebanon, Pennsylvania.

    Riley, Noel 1991  Gifts for Good Children:  The History of Children's China     1790 - 1890.  Richard Dennis, Somerset, England.

**We would like to thank Dr. Christina Bertrand, Barbara Acchino, and Robbie Crawford for their expert knowledge and assistance in providing data concerning the brass tailor's thimble.


Here are a few of the Internet sites that deal with archaeology in general and historic archaeology in particular.  These sites also provide links to other related web sites.

ArchNet (WWW Virtual Library Ė Archaeology) (

The West Virginia Division of Culture and History ( )

National Park Service, Links to the Past (

National Register of Historic Places (

Society for Historical Archaeology (

Blackwell History of Education Research Museum 1995 Slate Collection.  ( (Version current 8/18/99).

Corridor H - West Virginia Department of Highways. Get the facts about Corridor H. (